US libraries begin using MAchine Readable Cataloging (MARC) records.
Timeline: Digital Technology and Preservation
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is first proposed.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification is published.
First appearance of an interpreted BASIC programming language.
ARPANET shifts to TCP/IP.
The National Information Systems Task Force (NISTF) develops the first two formally recognized archival description standards in the US: NISTF Data Elements Dictionary and USMARC AMC.
LZW image compression algorithm is developed and is adopted for compression of modem communications and TIFF, GIF, PDF, Zip, and Postscript files. Belated assertion of the LZW patent in GIF files leads to the development of the PNG image file format in 1995.
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) is developed by Aldus.
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) standard is published.
The GIF graphics image format is introduced by CompuServe.
Apple introduces PICT image file format.
Proprietary file formats proliferate. Competing word processing software and file formats lead to rapid obsolescence.
Z39.50 becomes the international standard defining a protocol for computer-to-computer information retrieval. Z39.50 makes it possible for a user to search and retrieve information from other computer systems without knowing the search syntax used by those other systems.
TEI P1 "Guidelines for the Encoding and Interchange of Machine Readable Texts" are published.
Wide Area Information Server (WAIS) protocol is introduced, allowing collections of indexed data to be retrieved by searches.
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) initial draft.
Gopher, a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol, is released.
JPEG still picture compression standard introduced.
The HTML 1.0 standard is published.
MPEG-2 standard for digital television pictures is published.
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is established to develop common WWW protocols.
QuickTime 2.0 is introduced.
RealAudio is introduced.
HTML 2.0, the first formal HTML standard, is published.
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) 1.0 is introduced.
The Xerox DocuTech Publishing System is designed for "print-on-demand" network accessed document publishing.
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative originates.
PNG 1.0 image format approved as a W3C Recommendation.
HTTP 1.1 is released.
Resource Description Framework (RDF) is introduced. RDF is intended to provide metadata interoperability across different communities.
EAD Version 2002 becomes available.
QuickTime 6.0 is released.
MPEG 7 standard for description and search of audio and visual content is released.
National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images standards released.
An initiative known as PDF/A is undertaken to develop an international standard that defines the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) for archiving and preserving documents.
The US patent on the LZW compression algorithm expires, ending restrictions on the use of GIF files. Despite its technical superiority and status as an international standard, PNG has not displaced GIF as the preferred file format for lossless color images on the Web.
The International Organization for Standardization publishes: ISO 15836:2003, Information and Documentation, the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set.
The National Library of Australia and the Australian Partnership for Sustainable Repositories develop AONS, a system which automatically monitors the file formats of digital resources in a repository.
Harvard University Library and OCLC join forces to open the GDFR, providing distributed services to store, discover, and deliver representation information about digital formats.
The UDFR, a format registry that will eventually merge PRONOM and the Global Digital Format Registry, is announced.