Digital Preservation Tutorial: Timeline

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view allgeneral developmentsprotocols and formatsnetworkshardware and softwaremediacrisis and obsolescenceorganizational response
go to >>   1970   1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005
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1961
bullet.gif The first teletype is connected to a "timesharing" mainframe computer.
1969

bullet.gif The first ARPANET node is installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center.

bullet.gif The first "Requests for Comments" (RFC) proposed to standardize the transfer of information across the ARPA network.

1971

bullet.gif The first ARPANET network email message is transmitted.

bullet.gif File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is first proposed.

1972

bullet.gifDialog offers the first publicly available online research service.

1973

bullet.gif The first ARPANET nodes appear in Europe.

bullet.gif Bob Metcalfe invents Ethernet, a local area network (LAN) technology.Ethernet cable

1974
bullet.gif Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification is published.
1975

bullet.gif Ohio State University introduces one of the first online catalogs.

bullet.gif First list servers are introduced.

1977

bullet.gif 100 hosts exist on ARPANET.

1978

bullet.gif Dallas Public Library introduces one of the first online public catalogs (OPACs).

worm.gifbullet.gif A "worm" program that searches out other computers copies itself then self-destructs is invented by two Xerox PARC researchers.

1979

bullet.gifUSENET emerges as a collection of user-submitted messages on various subjects posted to servers on a worldwide network.

1980

bullet.gifDigital faxes using uniform data standards appear.

bullet.gif The TELNET protocol is specified, allowing command line login sessions between hosts.

1981

bullet.gifBITNET, a network of academic sites comparable to but separate from the Internet, appears.

1982

bullet.gif ARPANET shifts to TCP/IP.

1984

bullet.gif Architecture of the Domain Name System (DNS) is designed, contains 1000 hosts.

bullet.gif As personal computers become more powerful, people become accustomed to faster machines and graphical interfaces. Use shifts from centralized mainframes to personal computers distributed over a network.

1986

bullet.gifNSFNET replaces ARPANET as the main government network linking universities and research facilities.

1987

bullet.gif The number of DNS hosts begins doubling each year.

bullet.gif NCSA develops NCSA telnet, making it easier to connect to a remote computer.

1988

bullet.gifZ39.50 becomes the international standard defining a protocol for computer-to-computer information retrieval. Z39.50 makes it possible for a user to search and retrieve information from other computer systems without knowing the search syntax used by those other systems.Virus

bullet.gif The Internet Worm virus temporarily shuts down 10% of the world's Internet servers.

1989

bullet.gif MCI Mail and Compuserv provide the first commercial email connection through NSFNET.

1990

bullet.gif Archie software for searching FTP sites is released.

1991

bullet.gif Wide Area Information Server (WAIS) protocol is introduced, allowing collections of indexed data to be retrieved by searches.

bullet.gif An early World Wide Web (WWW) system is released by CERN to the high energy physics community.

bullet.gif HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) initial draft.

Gopherbullet.gifGopher, a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol, is released.

1992

bullet.gif Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) protocol proposed.

bullet.gif Network service providers America Online and Delphi connect their proprietary email systems to the Internet, beginning the large scale adoption of Internet email as a global standard.

1993

bullet.gifInternic is created to manage Internet services.

1995
bullet.gif National Science Foundation dismantles NSFnet and replaces it with a commercial Internet backbone.
1996

bullet.gifInternet2 project is formed to provide a high-bandwith network for the national research community.

1997

bullet.gifBITNET is retired.

bullet.gif The original version of the standard IEEE 802.11, the wireless LAN standard, is released, launching the WiFi phenomenon.

bullet.gif A human error at Network Solutions causes the Domain Name System (DNS) table for .com and .net domains to become corrupted, making millions of systems unreachable.

1998
bullet.gif Two Web domain-name groups, Network Solutions and the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, form the nonprofit Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) to oversee the domain-name system.
1999

bullet.gif HTTP 1.1 is released.

bullet.gifBluetooth, a short range wireless networking standard, is announced. bluetooth

  2003
  bullet.gif The third WiFi modulation standard, 802.11g, is ratified. Consumers products and WiFi "hotspots" proliferate.
  2007
 

NSF implements the Office of CyberInfrastructure, which publishes the Cyberinfrastructure Vision for 21st century Discovery report.