Digital Preservation Tutorial: Timeline

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bullet.gif The first teletype is connected to a "timesharing" mainframe computer.

bullet.gif The first ARPANET node is installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center.

bullet.gif The first "Requests for Comments" (RFC) proposed to standardize the transfer of information across the ARPA network.


bullet.gif The first ARPANET network email message is transmitted.

bullet.gif File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is first proposed.


bullet.gifDialog offers the first publicly available online research service.


bullet.gif The first ARPANET nodes appear in Europe.

bullet.gif Bob Metcalfe invents Ethernet, a local area network (LAN) technology.Ethernet cable

bullet.gif Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification is published.

bullet.gif Ohio State University introduces one of the first online catalogs.

bullet.gif First list servers are introduced.


bullet.gif 100 hosts exist on ARPANET.


bullet.gif Dallas Public Library introduces one of the first online public catalogs (OPACs).

worm.gifbullet.gif A "worm" program that searches out other computers copies itself then self-destructs is invented by two Xerox PARC researchers.


bullet.gifUSENET emerges as a collection of user-submitted messages on various subjects posted to servers on a worldwide network.


bullet.gifDigital faxes using uniform data standards appear.

bullet.gif The TELNET protocol is specified, allowing command line login sessions between hosts.


bullet.gifBITNET, a network of academic sites comparable to but separate from the Internet, appears.


bullet.gif ARPANET shifts to TCP/IP.


bullet.gif Architecture of the Domain Name System (DNS) is designed, contains 1000 hosts.

bullet.gif As personal computers become more powerful, people become accustomed to faster machines and graphical interfaces. Use shifts from centralized mainframes to personal computers distributed over a network.


bullet.gifNSFNET replaces ARPANET as the main government network linking universities and research facilities.


bullet.gif The number of DNS hosts begins doubling each year.

bullet.gif NCSA develops NCSA telnet, making it easier to connect to a remote computer.


bullet.gifZ39.50 becomes the international standard defining a protocol for computer-to-computer information retrieval. Z39.50 makes it possible for a user to search and retrieve information from other computer systems without knowing the search syntax used by those other systems.Virus

bullet.gif The Internet Worm virus temporarily shuts down 10% of the world's Internet servers.


bullet.gif MCI Mail and Compuserv provide the first commercial email connection through NSFNET.


bullet.gif Archie software for searching FTP sites is released.


bullet.gif Wide Area Information Server (WAIS) protocol is introduced, allowing collections of indexed data to be retrieved by searches.

bullet.gif An early World Wide Web (WWW) system is released by CERN to the high energy physics community.

bullet.gif HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) initial draft.

Gopherbullet.gifGopher, a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol, is released.


bullet.gif Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) protocol proposed.

bullet.gif Network service providers America Online and Delphi connect their proprietary email systems to the Internet, beginning the large scale adoption of Internet email as a global standard.


bullet.gifInternic is created to manage Internet services.

bullet.gif National Science Foundation dismantles NSFnet and replaces it with a commercial Internet backbone.

bullet.gifInternet2 project is formed to provide a high-bandwith network for the national research community.


bullet.gifBITNET is retired.

bullet.gif The original version of the standard IEEE 802.11, the wireless LAN standard, is released, launching the WiFi phenomenon.

bullet.gif A human error at Network Solutions causes the Domain Name System (DNS) table for .com and .net domains to become corrupted, making millions of systems unreachable.paper records

bullet.gif Two Web domain-name groups, Network Solutions and the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, form the nonprofit Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) to oversee the domain-name system.

bullet.gif HTTP 1.1 is released.

bullet.gifBluetooth, a short range wireless networking standard, is announced. bluetooth

  bullet.gif The third WiFi modulation standard, 802.11g, is ratified. Consumers products and WiFi "hotspots" proliferate.

NSF implements the Office of CyberInfrastructure, which publishes the Cyberinfrastructure Vision for 21st century Discovery report.